The Wired article on so-called false memory

Well I never!

I thought I didn’t need to write about the UK false memory club anymore. But it turns out they have new tricks up their sleeve.

Third party research

According to an article in the Magazine Wired,  third party information about my so-called false memory (and that of 2,499 other people’s so-called false memories) was put into the back of a mini and driven from somewhere in the Midlands to London by a researcher and a group of phd students. There, they have been placed in a gothic looking office in London and will be used for “research”. (1)

Hmm… Could somebody ask my permission please?

They even seem to have been using Twitter to find staff for this reseach.

Outlier research?

Chris Cheit on an article in the New Yorker

Aviv cites, without skepticism, a highly-publicized study by Shaw and Porter that claimed in 2015 that “seventy per cent of people, when subjected to highly suggestive and repetitive interviews, would come to believe that they had committed a crime.” What Aviv did not tell her readers is that this study is well known to academic psychologists as an outlier; it is also known for its incoherence. Brewin and Andrews’ 2016 meta-study demonstrates that the study is an extreme outlier. Pezdek and Blandon-Gitlin’s 2016 analysis concluded that the same study was essentially incoherent, employing “an unorthodox rating system” that rendered it “impossible to know what the high prevalence rate actually refers to.”

Sending postcards to muderers 

It also turns out that a member of their academic advisory board has sent a nice postcard to a person in prison, a man who happens to have muderered his Dad.

The man who murdered his Dad wrote back and thanked her and there is is picture of this letter (nice handwriting he has too) in the Wired magazine.

2e8b0_405 (3)
A  thank you letter to a UK false memory club advisor: from a man who strangled his Dad with his pjamas because he was apparently having a false memory at the time. Wired Magazine.

Why? Because it turns out that the man who muderered his Dad tried to get off with manslaughter by saying that he killed his Dad because of a flashback. He said that just before just Before strangled his Dad (using his Dad’s own pjamas) (2) he had a he a flashback of being abused as a Child by his Dad (3) It was this flashback that  caused him to do what he did. He also hit seems to have hit his Dad and punched him several times , including around the head.(2) He was also apparently caring for his Dad at the time (2) He was also drunk at the time he mudered his Dad (3)

His plea for manslaughter didn’t work and he was sentenced to life inprisonment(3) He later had  the sentence reduced on account of the fact that his Dad had advanced dementia at the time(4)  In order to explain why he did what he did (because most people who care for people with dementia don’t strangle them) he then seems to have said that he had a false memory of  abuse because of the stress he was under.(4)

Enter the false memory club. I don’t know how they found out about the case but it seems that it is useful for them for enlarging their knowledge about so-called false memory (and how it can be used in a courtroom)

It all seems rather surreal. And then they claim that is is people like me who suffer from satanic panic.

Why some people develop a possion for demolishing other people’s memories

But the article (or at least a first edition of it which as somehow made its way online ) did  explain why the false memory researcher became interested in the study of false memory. It seems she grew up in a family of people where lots of people suffer from mental illness and have different understsndings of  reality. So does the false memory empoyee who gave her the third party information about my so-called false memory ( he has made his family’s tragedy public).

And so do I.

I understand their need to  establish an uneqivicle truth about their families in order to establish stability. But I think it is a pity that they don’t see that family history, like any other history, can have multiple truths. And it’s not Always the people who appear successful and sane that have the most understanding.

In the memory researcher’s case, her family history of multiple truths meant tht she came to idolise the memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus and her work (3) As a result she has become an expert in so-called false memory herself. and presumably overlooks the ethical aspects of loftus work and the ethical complaints agasinst her.

A post-exaro effect

In the Wired article the false memory club empoloyee talks about something he calls the post-savile effect.

Disagreement between false memory advocates

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

An earlier version of the article, which is slightly different, is found at the web adress

https://android7update.com/false-memories-and-false-confessions-the-psychology-of-imagined-crimes/

In case this latter adress disapears, I have copied the article here:-

False memories and fake confessions: a psychology of illusory crimes

It endangered dual sisters who, in 2015, had given a troops clear descriptions of being intimately abused by a tighten womanlike relative. They purported that a abuse had taken place between 1975 and 1976. The lawyer, who was representing a defendant, wanted Shaw’s submit as an consultant witness.

Shaw ( deleted ) during a London South Bank University, was struck by how surprising a unfolding was. “Usually, in cases of passionate abuse, a father is a accused,” she says. “In this case, it was a girl.” At a time of a purported abuse, a sisters had been around 4 and 7 years old, and a relations was between 10 and 12

As she leafed by a speak transcripts, Shaw remarkable a comparison sister’s language. “She kept saying, ‘My childhood was severe and we buried so much. we consider it was my coping mechanism, we contingency have customarily blocked it.’ These are things that prove to an arrogance of repression. This is a thought that if something bad happens, we can censor it in a dilemma of your brain,” she says.The comparison sister also told troops that her correlation was unearthed unexpected by a sketch that her relations had posted on Facebook, triggering memories of a few instances when they were regularly finished to perform passionate acts in an upstairs room of a family home. The younger sister told troops that she couldn’t remember many of what had occurred, though concluded with her sibling’s chronicle of events. To Shaw, this indicated amicable contagion: when testimonies are tainted, or even formed, by others’ accounts of what happened. “The twin also gave a clarity that a [first] complainant was during times also gentle with guessing memory details, saying, for example, ‘I can’t remember, we customarily had this unequivocally uncanny feeling that she used to make us do things to any other,’” Shaw recounts.Chimps recognize butts in a same approach humans recognize faces.

Taking into comment a claims of restricted memory, a 40 years that elapsed between a purported crime and a accusation, and a memory pity between a dual sisters, Shaw could strech customarily one conclusion: nonetheless a dual sisters were substantially assured of a sincerity of their allegations, their accounts weren’t reliable. “I don’t try to figure out if a chairman is guilty or innocent,” Shaw says. “It’s about either a memory is arguable or not.”

The box was eventually forsaken due to new justification that a consider supposing in court. Now, a consider is perplexing to put a distress behind her. “I like being a chairman to say, ‘actually, this is bad evidence,’ if it is,” Shaw says. “That’s something we can’t do if we don’t know a science.”

As a researcher, Shaw studies how fake memories arise in a mind and relates it to a criminal-justice system. Contrary to what many believe, tellurian memories are malleable, open to thought and mostly unintentionally false. “False memories are everywhere,” she says. “In bland situations we don’t unequivocally notice or caring that they’re happening. We call them mistakes, or contend we misremember things.” In a criminal-justice system, however, they can have grave consequences.

 

“False memories are everywhere. In bland situations we don’t unequivocally notice or caring that they’re happening. We call them mistakes, or contend we misremember things.”


When Shaw works on cases she evenly looks for red flags. Cues such as age are important. For instance, before we strech a ago of three, a smarts can’t form memories that final into adulthood, clarification that claimed recollections from that duration are suspect.

 

She also investigates who a prosecution was with when they removed a memory, what questions they were asked and either in other circumstances, such as therapy, somebody could feasibly have planted a seed of a memory that took bottom in their minds.

 

Finally, Shaw looks for claims that a memory resurfaced suddenly, out of a blue, that can prove to restricted memories. It’s a discredited Freudian judgment that supports a grounds that dredging adult presumably mislaid memories can explain a person’s psychological and romantic turmoil, though scientifically, it’s unsubstantiated.

Understanding a ramifications of memory-gone-wrong drives Shaw. She believes that a singular recognition of memory investigate in therapy, policing and law is contributing to systemic failures, and is training a German troops on improving inquire methods. She wants to exterminate a misconceptions about memory. “We’ve finished things that people in policing or law don’t understand,” she says. “An educational biography has 10 people reading it. We’re doing this to have an impact.”

Allegations of sex abuse and eerie rituals strike a McMartin Preschool in Manhattan Beach, California, involving Peggy McMartin Buckey. Accusations by a mom that her child had been sodomised snowballed into an investigation, with allegations from hundreds of pupils. In 1990, these philosophy were overturned as it was judged that therapists had unintentionally ingrained fake memories in a preschoolers’ minds.In 1989, Eileen Franklin-Lipsker, a lady vital in Canoga Park, Los Angeles, was gazing during her immature daughter, Jessica, when a array of unfortunate memories rushed into her mind. In them, she witnessed her father, George Franklin, raping her eight-year-old crony Susan Nason in a behind of his van, afterwards abrasive her skull with a rock. Nason had been blank given 1969: her physique was detected 3 months after in a woods outward Foster City, California, where she’d lived. But a killer was never found. Disturbed by these memories, Franklin-Lipsker called a police. She told detectives on Nov 25, 1989, that 20 years earlier, her father ditched Nason’s physique underneath a mattress in a woods and threatened to kill her if she told anyone. She claimed that she’d restricted a intolerable memory for dual decades. Her correlation became a basement of an complaint conflicting George Franklin, ensuing in his trial. In late 1990, when a hearing was underneath way, Elizabeth Loftus, a cognitive clergyman during a University of California, Irvine, perceived a write call from Franklin’s attorney, Doug Horngrad. He wanted her as an consultant declare for a defence. Loftus had been investigate memory for some-more th an 20 years and had testified in several prior rapist cases. “What was obscure to me was that [Franklin-Lipsker] kept changing her testimony,” Loftus recalls. “She had maybe 5 or 6 conflicting versions of how her memory came back.” To Loftus, that signalled twisted or even built memories.In probity on Nov 20, 1990, Loftus spent dual hours explaining to a jury that memories are suggestible, and that Franklin-Lipsker’s competence not be as arguable as it seemed. Nevertheless, Franklin was convicted of Nason’s murder after that month. “I was repelled during a conviction,” Loftus says.Five years after a courts concluded with Loftus. Franklin-Lipsker’s sibling, Janice, testified that her sister had recovered a memories during hypnotherapy sessions that she had been attending to assuage a basin she had suffered from given her teens. During those sessions, Franklin-Lipsker schooled that her symptoms could prove post-traumatic highlight disorder, and was speedy to remember a trigger. That, according to Loftus, originated a fake memory. Hypnosis is deliberate an dangerous source by US and UK courts, so finished her accounts inadmissible. Since Franklin’s seizure complacent on his daughter’s watcher account, a decider overturned his self-assurance and he was freed.

 

Peggy McMartin Buckey
Peggy McMartin Buckey

Loftus’s impasse in a box spurred her to colonize investigate into fake memory. In a 80s and 90s, she’d spin intrigued by an torrent in allegations of passionate abuse. The thought of repressed-memory speculation was gaining traction during a time in choice practices such as hypnotherapy and psychotherapy. Patients were speedy to welcome visualising techniques, hypnotism and their imaginations to entrance restricted memories, that were customarily pinpointed as aroused passionate and earthy abuse during childhood. “You began to see hundreds of people entrance forward, observant that they had recovered restricted memories of vast brutalisation that they’d been totally unknowingly of,” Loftus says. “I saw that something unequivocally vast was going on here. It seemed that richly minute whole memories were being planted into a minds of typical people [in therapy]“For a time, a thought was hugely controversial”, Shaw says. “It was positively shocking. Loftus was indicted of silencing victims and was verbally attacked. we also get pounded when we pronounce out conflicting repressed-memory therapies. But people like Elizabeth [Loftus] and we are endangered that this has a intensity to unequivocally repairs lives.”In 1995 – a year Franklin’s box finished – Loftus tested out her speculation experimentally. Working with connoisseur tyro Jacqueline Pickrell, she recruited 24 participants and gave any of them booklets containing sum of 4 practice they’d had between a ages of 4 and six. Researchers contacted any participant’s relatives for sum of 3 loyal stories.The fourth story, however, was false: it endangered an hypothetical occurrence where a theme got mislaid in a selling centre as a child, was discovered by a foreigner and returned to their parents. To make it believable, Loftus asked a participants’ relatives for sum that could have been loyal – such as a name of a internal selling centre that indeed existed when a participants were young. They were asked to consider about a 4 memories and write down as many sum as they recalled. When interviewed about their recollections, some began to share how they’d felt, and even what their rescuer was wearing – notwithstanding a fact that it was all untrue. “It was groundbreaking, given it showed that we can make fake memories of whole experiences. That’s something we hadn’t finished before in a lab,” says Shaw. Ultimately, a entertain of a participants in Loftus’s investigate grown a minute fake memory. “The pivotal is suggestibility. Often, fake memories rise given there’s bearing to outmost revealing information,” Loftus says. “Or, people can advise things to themselves – autosuggestion. People pull inferences about what competence have happened. Those indurate and act like fake memories.”A lot of people were investigate memory errors during a time, though they weren’t creation it useful,” says Shaw. “Elizabeth structured it in a approach that people could take it into a courtroom.” In 1984, troops arrested a male named Joseph Pacely in California given he matched a outline of a consider who’d damaged into a woman’s home and attempted to rape her, though fled when others in a residence were woken by a noise. The woman, famous as Mrs M, identified Pacely from a line-up. But testifying on his behalf, cognitive clergyman and memory consultant Elizabeth Loftus explained that cross-race misidentification is common (the prosecution was Mexican), and that highlight distorts memory. Pacely was acquitted, due to Loftus’s evidence. One morning in Feb 2016, Shaw sat cross-legged in a pivot chair during her desk, in a dialect of Law and Social Sciences during London South Bank University, where she is a comparison techer in criminology. A petite 30-year-old, Shaw talks energetically about her work, in a flurry of difference punctuated by a occasional desirous crack of her prolonged blonde hair over a shoulder. Her seductiveness in memory scholarship took reason in her teens, when she began to investigate her family history. Half-German, half-Canadian, Shaw was innate in Cologne, Germany, and spent many of her lady relocating between her birthplace, a German city of Bonn, and Vancouver, Canada. “I grew adult in a family where some people had problem monitoring existence and struggled with mental-health issues. we knew from an early age that existence could be dramatically conflicting for people,” she says. Shaw is a initial in her family to finish a degree: in 2004, she started investigate psychology during a Vancouver campus of Simon Fraser University (SFU). “I didn’t know accurately what we was there for. we customarily knew that some of my family had swap realities. we wanted to know that. Shaw has idolised Elizabeth Loftus given her university days. “There aren’t that many women during a tip of a field. When we started investigate psychology, she was one of a many important,” she says. Her interests were shabby by Loftus’s memory-implantation studies. In 2009, while relocating from SFU to a University of British Columbia to control her PhD, Shaw became increasingly preoccupied by a impact that fake memories could have scenarios.

 

Julia Shaw in her London bureau operative on a investigate paper about fake memory issues in chronological child abuse cases
Julia Shaw in her London bureau operative on a investigate paper about fake memory issues in chronological child abuse cases. The thought that memory scholarship can assistance with troops doubt is formed on justification that’s been flourishing given a late 80s. “Studies uncover that a pointed ways a doubt is pitched can impact what a declare reports. The feedback we give to a declare can cgange how assured they are in their memories, and can figure those recollections,” says Kimberly W during a ity of Warwick who carries out false-memory research. Ultimately, bad inquire methods can lead to mistaken watcher accounts, groundless accusations and even fake confessions. “Why do people confess to things they never did? we consider a many fascinating examples aren’t given of woe or given they felt like they had to, though given they indeed consider they did it,” Shaw says. In 2015, Shaw set out to learn if she could make minute memories of committing a crime in people’s minds, as a substitute for bargain how real-world fake confessions arise. To do that, she used an updated chronicle of Loftus’s shopping-centre experiment. With her former PhD confidant Stephen Porter, a debat during a University of British Columbia, Shaw recruited 60 tyro participants, bursting them into dual groups. The initial was told they’d gifted an eventuality as teenagers, such as an injury, a dog attack, or losing a vast sum of money. The second was told they’d committed a crime, such as attack or theft, as teenagers. To make a memories some-more convincing, Shaw wove in autobiographical information from a participants’ relatives – such as where they were living, and a name of a crony that a member had during a age they’d presumably committed a crime. After a initial meeting, nothing of a participants could remember a fake memory. But any night for 3 weeks, they were speedy to spend a few mins visualising a event. Adding some amicable manipulation, Shaw told them many people can remember memories, though customarily if they try tough enough. Shaw recalls a impulse she realised her examination was working. An critical evidence that a fake memory is holding reason is a brilliance of a reported detail: “I had a member who was doing my guided imagery exercise; it seems so pardonable though she said, ‘Blue sky, we see a blue sky.’ It showed that she was shopping into a thought of indeed experiencing this eventuality and was accessing a memory, as conflicting to her imagination. Those were a kinds of sum that finished adult being a substructure for a eventuality itself.”The multiple – a clearly flawless story corroborated adult by genuine autobiographical details, visualization and opening vigour – resulted in 70 per cent of participants generating a abounding fake memory of a event. Previous implantation studies had rates of 35 per cent. Unexpectedly, participants were as receptive to a fake memories of committing crimes as they were to a romantic ones, Shaw says, notwithstanding a arrogance that people would find it harder to trust they’d acted criminally in a past. Shaw uses a investigate as explanation of memory’s fallibility. “I always go by a investigate when we speak to police,” she says. “They see themselves in that unfolding and consider ‘this could be me, implanting fake memories in a declare or a suspect.’ Shaw, who is smooth in German, works mostly with German troops and troops forces. With a police, she typically trains comparison troops officers, who in spin pass on what they’ve schooled to their subordinates during troops stations conflicting a country. In Nov 2016, she lectured an auditorium of 220 troops officers in a Police Academy of Lower Saxony in Nienburg, Germany. As always, she started with a education of memory scholarship to explain how memories fail. “It’s unequivocally critical to tell them not customarily what to do, though why. we consider carrying that trust creates troops many improved during their jobs,” Shaw says. Then she common unsentimental collection to assistance them equivocate a growth of fake memories during rapist cases: get your declare statements early, she told them, so memories don’t get muddied by time; keep people’s accounts of an eventuality apart so they don’t change any other; equivocate heading questions during interrogation. Shaw also stressed a significance of filming declare and consider interviews, that isn’t widely used in Germany. “It improves a outcome given troops officers are some-more discreet about how they ask questions,” she explains. It also creates an eccentric record so that if there are suspicions of a fake memory, a police’s inquire methods can be scrutinised, she says. After a lecture, Shaw perceived a singular acknowledgment that her lessons are commencement to take hold. A troops officer approached her and pronounced that, behind during her station, she would now set adult imperative videotaping for declare statements. Of her work with a military, she says these ideas can be a worse sell. “There are always one or dual people, customarily comparison men, who will customarily come during me with anecdotes such as ‘I remember being born,’ or ‘I have memories of my childhood, so this proves we wrong.’ we contend to them, ‘your version doesn’t unequivocally dispute my science,’” Shaw teaches a German military’s comprehension officers biannually: her concentration is assisting officers know a flaws in their possess memory so they can accumulate some-more arguable intelligence. “I learn them that we can be rarely assured in things that are wrong. So we need to be careful. You’re creation confidence decisions formed on information that we can’t write down while you’re entertainment intelligence. She’s also campaigning conflicting a military’s bent towards debriefings. In dispute situations, everybody will come behind and they’ll immediately debrief,” Shaw says. “But a vast lecture blunder is to all share your memories, given afterwards they all spin one. You remove all a nuances.”Recently, Shaw was sensitive by her trainees that a troops is ditching a corner debriefing robe in foster of officers exclusively recording their memories right after they’ve been in a field. “I also found out that my book was a Christmas benefaction for those we work with on a base,” she laughs. During therapy sessions she undertook in 1990, a 19-year-old Californian lady named Holly Ramona began to remember being abused by her father. Her memories were aided by doses of sodium amytal – supposed “truth serum” – famous to make people trust they’re recalling genuine events. Her father successfully sued a therapists for loosening in 1994, and was a initial box to find therapists guilty of implanting fake memories. What creates a memories so receptive comes down to a approach a mind stores information. That’s encapsulated by a judgment called Fuzzy-trace theory, initial described in a 90s by American psychologists Charles Brainerd and Valerie Reyna. The speculation suggests that a smarts lay down memories in dual forms: crux and verbatim-memory traces. Gist traces record extended facilities of an event; verbatim traces store accurate details. “The verbatim is exact, and a crux is general,” Shaw says. So, verbatim traces record a person’s eye colour and name, while a crux traces register how good we got on and either we favourite them. Memory distortions arise given a mind stores and recalls these forms of information independently, according to a theory. Since crux memories are also longer-lasting and some-more arguable over time than verbatim, that leads to memory cross-speak. Shaw explains in her book, The Memory of Illusion: “When a crux traces are strong, they can inspire what are called haunt recollective experiences, that take a laxity of a crux as a good evidence for verbatim interpretations.
We don’t generally remember a verbatim pieces of a lot of things, according to Shaw, “so when we need to remember verbatim, it can lead to confabulation – presumption pieces that weren’t creatively there. We overstate a crux memories.” These embellishments might come from other people’s accounts, a possess imaginations or what we’re now experiencing – all conniving to change a clarity of design reality. “As a ubiquitous rule, memory is a reconstructive thing,” says Deryn Strange, associate highbrow of cognitive psychology during a John Jay College of Criminal Justice during The City University of New York. “So we are not means to play behind any impulse in a past and design it to be an accurate record of what happened.”In Jun 2016, Shaw congested herself, dual PhD students and 4 boxes into her Mini. They were returning to London from a domicile of a British False Memory Society (BFMS) outward Birmingham. The organization helps people who have been indicted of crimes they explain they didn’t commit. The boxes Shaw was transporting contained a photocopies of thousands of delicately redacted files – call transcripts, probity reports and psychiatric annals – that report a approximately 2,500 fake memory cases a BFMS has amassed given 1993.Shaw and Kevin Felstead, executive of communications during BFMS, are regulating a dataset to brand how fake memories form and develop over time. Their consult has also suggested several facilities that allegations have in common: customarily a prosecution is famous to a accused; a claims predominantly engage purported passionate abuse; and many accusers are undergoing controversial therapy. “People seeking therapy are vulnerable, and they’re looking for answers,” Shaw says. “So if a therapist says ‘You contingency have restricted something,’ they say, ‘Let’s go find it.’”Across a survey, a spook of bad therapy looms large, customarily represented by hypnotherapists and psychotherapists who welcome repressed-memory techniques. “There are still psychoanalytic schools observant hang-up is something we need to demeanour for. So we’ve got universities training this nonsense to people,” Shaw says. The BFMS is solemnly building adult a therapy blacklist, so that professionals who spin adult regularly can be identified. “I think, right now, we have a Wild West of healing methods that are applied. Just like not everybody can call themselves a medical doctor, we don’t consider anyone should be means to contend they can assistance with mental health,” Shaw says. Another facet to a problem is what Felstead calls a “post-Savile effect”. In 2012, revelations of passionate abuse gifted by hundreds of people by during a hands of Jimmy Savile lifted a form of sexual-abuse victims. “The rapist probity complement has historically let down victims,” Felstead says. “Victims had terrible ordeals in those courtrooms. Nobody believed them, and they were ridiculed. Since Savile, it’s left in a conflicting direction.”People who lay passionate abuse are frequently referred to as victims from a start. “Inquiries into ancestral passionate abuse also impute to people as survivors,” Shaw says. In 2016, London’s Metropolitan troops force was criticised for adopting a routine saying that anyone who finished a sexual-abuse claim

 

 

 

 

A minute created to Julia Shaw from UK housing advantage consultant John Zebedee detailing a events that caused him to murder his father in 2011, after a passionate abuse flashback. He now believes a memory to be false
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/deep-mysteries-of-family-cruelty-unloved-or-spoilt-brats-who-can-understand-children-who-kill-their-1382502.html

AN elderly pensioner killed in his Northamptonshire home was strangled with his pyjamas, a court heard. John Zebedee, aged 54, denies murdering his 94-year-old father, Harry, by ligature strangulation in the early hours of Friday, February 25, at his thatched cottage in Slapton, near Towcester. At Northampton Crown Court yesterday, he entered a not guilty plea to his father’s murder. Speaking only to confirm his name and plea, he said: “Not guilty to murder but guilty to manslaughter.” Piers Read, prosecuting, said: “The plea is not acceptable as far as the prosecution is concerned.”The court heard Zebedee will maintain a defence to the murder allegation of man- slaughter by way of diminished responsibility.Mr Read told the court that the prosecution would be instructing its own psychiatrist to prepare a report and said he believed it was a matter for a jury to decide.John Zebedee, of Waverley Way, Reading, was arrested in Slapton, a small hamlet near Towcester, on the same day as the discovery of his father’s body when officers were called to the property at 1.30am on February 25. Mr Read said Home Office pathologist Professor Guy Rutty had concluded the cause of death was a ligature around the neck, thought to have been done with his pyjamas, although Mr Zebedee senior had also suffered “a blow to the back of head behind his ear”.John Lloyd-Jones, defending, said: “He makes it plain he killed his father and in doing so he did so unlawfully.”He also told Judge Charles Wide QC that the defendant’s sister and niece, who were in court, may give evidence during the trial.Judge Charles Wide QC, who adjourned the case for a three-day trial in October, said: “The issue here is a quite a narrow one.”

Read more at: http://www.buckinghamtoday.co.uk/news/crime/son-admits-killing-but-not-murder-1-2822222

 

“Dear Julia!

Thank you for the wonderful (flowers?) and postcard”

This from the BBC

( the convicted) claimed he had killed his father over alleged abuse as a child. No evidence was found to corroborate his claim.

(the murdured) was found at his cottage near Towcester in February.

An admission of manslaughter was not accepted and a jury convicted Zebedee of murder at Northampton Crown Court.

He was told he must serve a minimum of 14 years.

(the convicted) admitted he had killed his father, who had Alzheimer’s disease, by beating him in the early hours of 25 February.

He claimed remembering the abuse he had suffered at his father’s hands as a child had impaired his ability to exercise control

.And this from a local paper:-

( the convicted )beat and strangled his father who suffered from Alzheimer’s, had admitted killing his father but denied his murder, claiming to have little recollection of his actions—-

He claimed that he had killed his father after remembering alleged abuse he had suffered by his father when he was a young child, and that this had impaired his ability to exercise control, although no evidence could be found to corroborate this account.

A spokesman for the police said,

 “This was a very sad and tragic case, of a defenceless and frail old man being attacked by someone he trusted…. the brutal murder of a fragile man, by his son, there can be no winners in a case like this…….. a complex case to pursue and the verdict and sentence will undoubtedly be a difficult one for the family. “

A relative for the deceased said.

“We hope that in some way our experiences may increase awareness of the extreme pressure and stress that a family faces when caring for a loved one suffering from dementia.

And this from Another paper, after the man had apealed and had his sentence shortened

(the convicted ) who beat and strangled and( the deseased) who was suffering from senile dementia, to death at his home in Slapton, near Towcester. Zebedee, of Reading, admitted killing his father but denied murder, claiming he “lost control” when he remembered his father abusing him as a child, which he later said did not happen. He was jailed for life and ordered to serve at least 13 years after being convicted of murder in October. But his minimum term was cut to 10 years at London’s Criminal Appeal Court, after senior judges said not enough consideration was given to the immense pressure caring for his father had placed on him. Mr Justice Spencer, sitting with Lord Justice Moses and Judge Melbourne Inman QC, told the court the case was “truly tragic”.The judge said the family, (including the convicted) showed his father loving devotion during his illness, adding: “The burden of care was very great.”When he became too ill to live on his own, he moved in with his daughter and her family and was cared for by family membe(the convicted) helped with his father’s care and would regularly take a week off work to give his sister’s family some respite. He was staying at his sister’s home during one such week on February 24 last year, when the tragic events unfolded. He continued drinking after the family had dinner and gone to bed.However, he was later found with blood on his hands and his father’s body was discovered badly beaten and strangled. He told police his father started whistling, which triggered a childhood memory of abuse, which made a “red mist” descend upon him.Allowing the appeal, Mr Justice Spencer said: “This was an extremely difficult sentencing task facing the judge at the end of an extremely emotional trial.

“It is unfortunate the real mitigation in the case became obscured by the child abuse issue.“In our view, the mitigating factors did substantially outweigh the aggravating factors and should have resulted in a sentence significantly lower.”

and this from:-

and this from another source

Mr Zebedee admitted killing his father but denied murder, claiming to have little recollection of what happened.
He told investigators that he snapped after remembering alleged abuse committed by his father upon him when he was a child – despite there being no evidence to corroborate the claim.
Mr Zebedee argued in Northampton Crown Court that this had impaired his ability to exercise control but the jury disagreed and returned a verdict of guilty.

 

and Another source

Piers Reed, prosecuting at Northampton Crown Court yesterday, said elderly Mr Zebedee was found dead in bed, with injuries to his face, head and neck, consistent with being punched several times and strangled.Mr Reed said Zebedee told police he had been called downstairs to his father for the second time in the night, when the elderly man began whistling, before licking his lips and putting his finger in the air “as if to say: ‘chalk one up, I’ve won’.”He said: “Then a red mist came over him for a few seconds. He said he felt like a child. He went to him up bad memories of abuse he alleged he had suffered as a child.Mr Reed said: “He says his mental function was so impaired such as to affect his ability to exercise self control.“This was as the result of what happened to him when he was a young man, between the age of six and 11. “The Crown say he told us about it, and told us in some detail, and that he told police in some detail about it. “But there is nobody else, including [his sister], his closest relative, who knows anything about this at all. There is no support or corroboration, nothing.”He added: “The Crown say this was a loss of temper, not a loss of control as the result of a medical condition.”Zebedee, of Waverley Way, Reading, denies murder. The trial continues.and shook him at first. Then he put his hands around his neck.“The next thing he realised [his sister’s partner] was coming downstairs. He was in the kitchen by now, washing his hands.” Mr Reed said Zebedee admitted in a later interview coming around to find himself astride his father on his father’s bed.He said Zebedee told police his father’s actions had stirred

 

 

Read more at: http://www.northamptonchron.co.uk/news/man-denies-murdering-his-94-year-old-father-in-northamptonshire-village-cottage-1-3114839

 

 

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

In 1989, Eileen Franklin-Lipsker, a lady vital in Canoga Park, Los Angeles, was gazing during her immature daughter, Jessica, when a array of unfortunate memories rushed into her mind. In them, she witnessed her father, George Franklin, raping her eight-year-old crony Susan Nason in a behind of his van, afterwards abrasive her skull with a rock. Nason had been blank given 1969: her physique was detected 3 months after in a woods outward Foster City, California, where she’d lived. But a killer was never found. Disturbed by these memories, Franklin-Lipsker called a police. She told detectives on Nov 25, 1989, that 20 years earlier, her father ditched Nason’s physique underneath a mattress in a woods and threatened to kill her if she told anyone. She claimed that she’d restricted a intolerable memory for dual decades. Her correlation became a basement of an complaint conflicting George Franklin, ensuing in his trial.

In late 1990, when a hearing was underneath way, Elizabeth Loftus, a cognitive clergyman during a University of California, Irvine, perceived a write call from Franklin’s attorney, Doug Horngrad. He wanted her as an consultant declare for a defence. Loftus had been investigate memory for some-more than 20 years and had testified in several prior rapist cases. “What was obscure to me was that [Franklin-Lipsker] kept changing her testimony,” Loftus recalls. “She had maybe 5 or 6 conflicting versions of how her memory came back.” To Loftus, that signalled twisted or even built memories.

In probity on Nov 20, 1990, Loftus spent dual hours explaining to a jury that memories are suggestible, and that Franklin-Lipsker’s competence not be as arguable as it seemed. Nevertheless, Franklin was convicted of Nason’s murder after that month. “I was repelled during a conviction,” Loftus says.

VR ‘memory palaces’ could assistance we master a new language


Five years after a courts concluded with Loftus. Franklin-Lipsker’s sibling, Janice, testified that her sister had recovered a memories during hypnotherapy sessions that she had been attending to assuage a basin she had suffered from given her teens. During those sessions, Franklin-Lipsker schooled that her symptoms could prove post-traumatic highlight disorder, and was speedy to remember a trigger. That, according to Loftus, originated a fake memory. Hypnosis is deliberate an dangerous source by US and UK courts, so finished her accounts inadmissible. Since Franklin’s seizure complacent on his daughter’s watcher account, a decider overturned his self-assurance and he was freed.

Peggy McMartin Buckey
Peggy McMartin Buckey
Peggy McMartin Buckey

Loftus’s impasse in a box spurred her to colonize investigate into fake memory. In a 80s and 90s, she’d spin intrigued by an torrent in allegations of passionate abuse. The thought of repressed-memory speculation was gaining traction during a time in choice practices such as hypnotherapy and psychotherapy. Patients were speedy to welcome visualising techniques, hypnotism and their imaginations to entrance restricted memories, that were customarily pinpointed as aroused passionate and earthy abuse during childhood. “You began to see hundreds of people entrance forward, observant that they had recovered restricted memories of vast brutalisation that they’d been totally unknowingly of,” Loftus says. “I saw that something unequivocally vast was going on here. It seemed that richly minute whole memories were being planted into a minds of typical people [in therapy].”

This drug could boost your memory after a singular dose


“For a time, a thought was hugely controversial”, Shaw says. “It was positively shocking. Loftus was indicted of silencing victims and was verbally attacked. we also get pounded when we pronounce out conflicting repressed-memory therapies. But people like Elizabeth [Loftus] and we are endangered that this has a intensity to unequivocally repairs lives.”

In 1995 – a year Franklin’s box finished – Loftus tested out her speculation experimentally. Working with connoisseur tyro Jacqueline Pickrell, she recruited 24 participants and gave any of them booklets containing sum of 4 practice they’d had between a ages of 4 and six. Researchers contacted any participant’s relatives for sum of 3 loyal stories.

The fourth story, however, was false: it endangered an hypothetical occurrence where a theme got mislaid in a selling centre as a child, was discovered by a foreigner and returned to their parents. To make it believable, Loftus asked a participants’ relatives for sum that could have been loyal – such as a name of a internal selling centre that indeed existed when a participants were young. They were asked to consider about a 4 memories and write down as many sum as they recalled. When interviewed about their recollections, some began to share how they’d felt, and even what their rescuer was wearing – notwithstanding a fact that it was all untrue. “It was groundbreaking, given it showed that we can make fake memories of whole experiences. That’s something we hadn’t finished before in a lab,” says Shaw.

Elizabeth Loftus
Elizabeth Loftus
Elizabeth Loftus

Memories can be intentionally forgotten, investigate says


Ultimately, a entertain of a participants in Loftus’s investigate grown a minute fake memory. “The pivotal is suggestibility. Often, fake memories rise given there’s bearing to outmost revealing information,” Loftus says. “Or, people can advise things to themselves – autosuggestion. People pull inferences about what competence have happened. Those indurate and act like fake memories.”

“A lot of people were investigate memory errors during a time, though they weren’t creation it useful,” says Shaw. “Elizabeth structured it in a approach that people could take it into a courtroom.”

In 1984, troops arrested a male named Joseph Pacely in California given he matched a outline of a consider who’d damaged into a woman’s home and attempted to rape her, though fled when others in a residence were woken by a noise. The woman, famous as Mrs M, identified Pacely from a line-up. But testifying on his behalf, cognitive clergyman and memory consultant Elizabeth Loftus explained that cross-race misidentification is common (the prosecution was Mexican), and that highlight distorts memory. Pacely was acquitted, due to Loftus’s evidence.

‘Birth’ of neurons seen in a mind for initial time


One morning in Feb 2016, Shaw sat cross-legged in a pivot chair during her desk, in a dialect of Law and Social Sciences during London South Bank University, where she is a comparison techer in criminology. A petite 30-year-old, Shaw talks energetically about her work, in a flurry of difference punctuated by a occasional desirous crack of her prolonged blonde hair over a shoulder. Her seductiveness in memory scholarship took reason in her teens, when she began to investigate her family history. Half-German, half-Canadian, Shaw was innate in Cologne, Germany, and spent many of her lady relocating between her birthplace, a German city of Bonn, and Vancouver, Canada. “I grew adult in a family where some people had problem monitoring existence and struggled with mental-health issues. we knew from an early age that existence could be dramatically conflicting for people,” she says. Shaw is a initial in her family to finish a degree: in 2004, she started investigate psychology during a Vancouver campus of Simon Fraser University (SFU). “I didn’t know accurately what we was there for. we customarily knew that some of my family had swap realities. we wanted to know that.”

Shaw has idolised Elizabeth Loftus given her university days. “There aren’t that many women during a tip of a field. When we started investigate psychology, she was one of a many important,” she says. Her interests were shabby by Loftus’s memory-implantation studies. In 2009, while relocating from SFU to a University of British Columbia to control her PhD, Shaw became increasingly preoccupied by a impact that fake memories could have scenarios.

Julia Shaw in her London bureau operative on a investigate paper about fake memory issues in chronological child abuse cases
Julia Shaw in her London bureau operative on a investigate paper about fake memory issues in chronological child abuse cases
Julia Shaw in her London bureau operative on a investigate paper about fake memory issues in chronological child abuse cases

How to clean and revive memories in rats


Extreme memorisers: WIRED Stories Episode 1


The thought that memory scholarship can assistance with troops doubt is formed on justification that’s been flourishing given a late 80s. “Studies uncover that a pointed ways a doubt is pitched can impact what a declare reports. The feedback we give to a declare can cgange how assured they are in their memories, and can figure those recollections,” says Kimberly W during a ity of Warwick who carries out false-memory research. Ultimately, bad inquire methods can lead to mistaken watcher accounts, groundless accusations and even fake confessions. “Why do people confess to things they never did? we consider a many fascinating examples aren’t given of woe or given they felt like they had to, though given they indeed consider they did it,” Shaw says.

In 2015, Shaw set out to learn if she could make minute memories of committing a crime in people’s minds, as a substitute for bargain how real-world fake confessions arise. To do that, she used an updated chronicle of Loftus’s shopping-centre experiment. With her former PhD confidant Stephen Porter, a debat during a University of British Columbia, Shaw recruited 60 tyro participants, bursting them into dual groups. The initial was told they’d gifted an eventuality as teenagers, such as an injury, a dog attack, or losing a vast sum of money. The second was told they’d committed a crime, such as attack or theft, as teenagers. To make a memories some-more convincing, Shaw wove in autobiographical information from a participants’ relatives – such as where they were living, and a name of a crony that a member had during a age they’d presumably committed a crime.

After a initial meeting, nothing of a participants could remember a fake memory. But any night for 3 weeks, they were speedy to spend a few mins visualising a event. Adding some amicable manipulation, Shaw told them many people can remember memories, though customarily if they try tough enough.

This program knows how noted your face is


Shaw recalls a impulse she realised her examination was working. An critical evidence that a fake memory is holding reason is a brilliance of a reported detail: “I had a member who was doing my guided imagery exercise; it seems so pardonable though she said, ‘Blue sky, we see a blue sky.’ It showed that she was shopping into a thought of indeed experiencing this eventuality and was accessing a memory, as conflicting to her imagination. Those were a kinds of sum that finished adult being a substructure for a eventuality itself.”

The multiple – a clearly flawless story corroborated adult by genuine autobiographical details, visualization and opening vigour – resulted in 70 per cent of participants generating a abounding fake memory of a event. Previous implantation studies had rates of 35 per cent. Unexpectedly, participants were as receptive to a fake memories of committing crimes as they were to a romantic ones, Shaw says, notwithstanding a arrogance that people would find it harder to trust they’d acted criminally in a past.

Shaw uses a investigate as explanation of memory’s fallibility. “I always go by a investigate when we speak to police,” she says. “They see themselves in that unfolding and consider ‘this could be me, implanting fake memories in a declare or a suspect.’”

Shaw, who is smooth in German, works mostly with German troops and troops forces. With a police, she typically trains comparison troops officers, who in spin pass on what they’ve schooled to their subordinates during troops stations conflicting a country. In Nov 2016, she lectured an auditorium of 220 troops officers in a Police Academy of Lower Saxony in Nienburg, Germany. As always, she started with a education of memory scholarship to explain how memories fail. “It’s unequivocally critical to tell them not customarily what to do, though why. we consider carrying that trust creates troops many improved during their jobs,” Shaw says. Then she common unsentimental collection to assistance them equivocate a growth of fake memories during rapist cases: get your declare statements early, she told them, so memories don’t get muddied by time; keep people’s accounts of an eventuality apart so they don’t change any other; equivocate heading questions during interrogations.

Shaw also stressed a significance of filming declare and consider interviews, that isn’t widely used in Germany. “It improves a outcome given troops officers are some-more discreet about how they ask questions,” she explains. It also creates an eccentric record so that if there are suspicions of a fake memory, a police’s inquire methods can be scrutinised, she says.

Holly Ramona
Holly Ramona
Holly Ramona

After a lecture, Shaw perceived a singular acknowledgment that her lessons are commencement to take hold. A troops officer approached her and pronounced that, behind during her station, she would now set adult imperative videotaping for declare statements.

Of her work with a military, she says these ideas can be a worse sell. “There are always one or dual people, customarily comparison men, who will customarily come during me with anecdotes such as ‘I remember being born,’ or ‘I have memories of my childhood, so this proves we wrong.’ we contend to them, ‘your version doesn’t unequivocally dispute my science,’” Shaw teaches a German military’s comprehension officers biannually: her concentration is assisting officers know a flaws in their possess memory so they can accumulate some-more arguable intelligence. “I learn them that we can be rarely assured in things that are wrong. So we need to be careful. You’re creation confidence decisions formed on information that we can’t write down while you’re entertainment intelligence.”

She’s also campaigning conflicting a military’s bent towards debriefings. In dispute situations, everybody will come behind and they’ll immediately debrief,” Shaw says. “But a vast lecture blunder is to all share your memories, given afterwards they all spin one. You remove all a nuances.”

Recently, Shaw was sensitive by her trainees that a troops is ditching a corner debriefing robe in foster of officers exclusively recording their memories right after they’ve been in a field. “I also found out that my book was a Christmas benefaction for those we work with on a base,” she laughs.

During therapy sessions she undertook in 1990, a 19-year-old Californian lady named Holly Ramona began to remember being abused by her father. Her memories were aided by doses of sodium amytal – supposed “truth serum” – famous to make people trust they’re recalling genuine events. Her father successfully sued a therapists for loosening in 1994, and was a initial box to find therapists guilty of implanting fake memories.

What creates a memories so receptive comes down to a approach a mind stores information. That’s encapsulated by a judgment called Fuzzy-trace theory, initial described in a 90s by American psychologists Charles Brainerd and Valerie Reyna. The speculation suggests that a smarts lay down memories in dual forms: crux and verbatim-memory traces. Gist traces record extended facilities of an event; verbatim traces store accurate details. “The verbatim is exact, and a crux is general,” Shaw says. So, verbatim traces record a person’s eye colour and name, while a crux traces register how good we got on and either we favourite them.

Memory distortions arise given a mind stores and recalls these forms of information independently, according to a theory. Since crux memories are also longer-lasting and some-more arguable over time than verbatim, that leads to memory cross-speak. Shaw explains in her book, The Memory of Illusion: “When a crux traces are strong, they can inspire what are called haunt recollective experiences, that take a laxity of a crux as a good evidence for verbatim interpretations.”

Edward Heath
Edward Heath
Edward Heath

We don’t generally remember a verbatim pieces of a lot of things, according to Shaw, “so when we need to remember verbatim, it can lead to confabulation – presumption pieces that weren’t creatively there. We overstate a crux memories.” These embellishments might come from other people’s accounts, a possess imaginations or what we’re now experiencing – all conniving to change a clarity of design reality. “As a ubiquitous rule, memory is a reconstructive thing,” says Deryn Strange, associate highbrow of cognitive psychology during a John Jay College of Criminal Justice during The City University of New York. “So we are not means to play behind any impulse in a past and design it to be an accurate record of what happened.”

How emotions are ‘made’: given your clarification of unhappiness is distinct anyone else’s


In Jun 2016, Shaw congested herself, dual PhD students and 4 boxes into her Mini. They were returning to London from a domicile of a British False Memory Society (BFMS) outward Birmingham. The organization helps people who have been indicted of crimes they explain they didn’t commit. The boxes Shaw was transporting contained a photocopies of thousands of delicately redacted files – call transcripts, probity reports and psychiatric annals – that report a approximately 2,500 fake memory cases a BFMS has amassed given 1993.

Shaw and Kevin Felstead, executive of communications during BFMS, are regulating a dataset to brand how fake memories form and develop over time. Their consult has also suggested several facilities that allegations have in common: customarily a prosecution is famous to a accused; a claims predominantly engage purported passionate abuse; and many accusers are undergoing controversial therapy. “People seeking therapy are vulnerable, and they’re looking for answers,” Shaw says. “So if a therapist says ‘You contingency have restricted something,’ they say, ‘Let’s go find it.’”

Across a survey, a spook of bad therapy looms large, customarily represented by hypnotherapists and psychotherapists who welcome repressed-memory techniques. “There are still psychoanalytic schools observant hang-up is something we need to demeanour for. So we’ve got universities training this nonsense to people,” Shaw says. The BFMS is solemnly building adult a therapy blacklist, so that professionals who spin adult regularly can be identified. “I think, right now, we have a Wild West of healing methods that are applied. Just like not everybody can call themselves a medical doctor, we don’t consider anyone should be means to contend they can assistance with mental health,” Shaw says.

Kevin Felstead from a British False Memory Society collaborated with Julia Shaw
Kevin Felstead from a British False Memory Society collaborated with Julia Shaw
Kevin Felstead from a British False Memory Society collaborated with Julia Shaw

Another facet to a problem is what Felstead calls a “post-Savile effect”. In 2012, revelations of passionate abuse gifted by hundreds of people by during a hands of Jimmy Savile lifted a form of sexual-abuse victims. “The rapist probity complement has historically let down victims,” Felstead says. “Victims had terrible ordeals in those courtrooms. Nobody believed them, and they were ridiculed. Since Savile, it’s left in a conflicting direction.”

People who lay passionate abuse are frequently referred to as victims from a start. “Inquiries into ancestral passionate abuse also impute to people as survivors,” Shaw says. In 2016, London’s Metropolitan troops force was criticised for adopting a routine saying that anyone who finished a sexual-abuse claim would be believed. “Referring to people as victims when you’re not certain victimisation has taken place has outrageous intensity to change a authorised process,” Shaw says.

In Shaw’s opinion, there’s a third choice for a rapist probity system. Besides law and lies, there are also falsehoods masquerading as existence in people’s minds. She agrees with Elizabeth Loftus’s suggestions in 2008, that courts should adopt a new oath: “Do we swear to tell a truth, a whole truth, or whatever it is we consider we remember?”

Emma Bryce is a scholarship and environmental journalist. This is her initial underline for WIRED

 

 

 

The ex-exaro news

IMG_6409_edited

I’m tired of blogging about the now ex-website which called itself Exaro news. I’d like to move on. But as long as the remnants of their people and troll accounts are still tweeting about child sexual abuse, I won’t move on yet. Because I won’t give the false memory people and other child abuse deniers the opportunity to say “look at exaro news, all false memories, false allegations and lies”. I want to be able to say, no, Exaro was not representative of adults who were abused as children in the UK; they do not own the word survivor and if all of their “survivors” are found guilty of fraud, it does not make false memory a component of most reports about child abuse. It just means that Exaro was a con organisation.

Press freedom

Anna-Lena Lauren @AnnalenaLauren is a Finnish journalist who has reported extensively from Russia and the Caucasian provences in the Russian Federation. She describes what press freedom means in these provences. On a visit to one  province  she is told that  it has press freedom because each of the main ethnic groups living there (at least 8) has its own press. Each produces its own newspaper. She explains that this concept of press freedom is not the same as press freedom in the west (where there are journalistic rules that must be followed) but simply that every ethnic group has its representative newspaper where it can print news in its own language.

Later on she interviews the editor of a newspaper for another Caucasian province (P 134) which also prints news without sources and interviews. Articles present the viewpoint of the person writing the article as fact. She asks the editor how the newspaper survives because it contains no advertising and the editor replies that the newspaper is paid for the contents of articles. She reflects

I immediately suspect that the newspaper also chooses which corrupt officials it exposes and which ones are left in peace”

She asks him why he accepts payment for the content of articles and he throws the question back at her. Explaining that because there is no publicly funding broadcasting in his country (unlike hers) there is no other way his newspaper can survive. Lauren reflects that:

It is circumstances like this that make it hard to observe and interpret what is actually happening, in Caucasian and in the rest of Russia. Everyone has their own agenda”.

The Exaro website

I suspect that, like the Caucasian paper, the Exaro website also chose

which corrupt officials it exposes and which ones are left in peace”

They and their followers re-tweeted my blog when it contained information that was useful to them and organised for me to be attacked when they didn’t like what I wrote.

Interestingly enough, more than one of the people associated with the that website had previously worked with Russian media.

Reference

I bergen finns inga herrar – om Kaukasien och dess folk, Söderströms, Helsingfors 2009 ( translation mine)